Tulosta

Ikääntymiseen liittyvät fysiologiset muutokset ja liikuntaharjoittelu

Lisätietoa aiheesta
15.10.2015
Pirjo Komulainen ja Ilkka Vuori

Lihaskato (sarkopenia)

Aerobinen kestävyys

Tasapaino

Notkeus (liikkuvuus)

  • Liikkuvuus pienenee selvästi iän mukana, ja siihen voivat vaikuttaa luuston epämuodostumat, lihasten heikkous, jänteiden lyhentyminen ja kudosten kimmoisuuden väheneminen.
  • Liikkuvuutta voidaan parantaa venyttävillä ja nivelten täysiä liikelaajuuksia sisältävillä harjoitteilla.
  • Huono liikkuvuus on yhteydessä toiminnanvajauksiin, mutta liikkuvuutta parantavat ohjelmat yksinään eivät ole vähentäneet toiminnanvajauksia «Singh MA. Exercise to prevent and treat functional disability. Clin Geriatr Med 2002;18:431-62, vi-vii »3.

Kognitiiviset toiminnot

Kirjallisuutta

  1. Strandberg T, Viitanen M, Rantanen T ym. Vanhuksen hauraus-raihnausoireyhtymä. Duodecim 2006;122:1495-502 «PMID: 17091680»PubMed
  2. Doherty TJ. Invited review: Aging and sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2003;95:1717-27 «PMID: 12970377»PubMed
  3. Singh MA. Exercise to prevent and treat functional disability. Clin Geriatr Med 2002;18:431-62, vi-vii «PMID: 12424867»PubMed
  4. Brill PA, Macera CA, Davis DR ym. Muscular strength and physical function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:412-6 «PMID: 10694125»PubMed
  5. Liu CJ, Latham NK. Progressive resistance strength training for improving physical function in older adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;:CD002759 «PMID: 19588334»PubMed
  6. Van Roie E, Delecluse C, Coudyzer W ym. Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Exp Gerontol 2013;48:1351-61 «PMID: 23999311»PubMed
  7. Reid KF, Martin KI, Doros G ym. Comparative effects of light or heavy resistance power training for improving lower extremity power and physical performance in mobility-limited older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2015;70:374-80 «PMID: 25199912»PubMed
  8. Hunter GR, McCarthy JP, Bamman MM. Effects of resistance training on older adults. Sports Med 2004;34:329-48 «PMID: 15107011»PubMed
  9. Fiatarone MA, Marks EC, Ryan ND ym. High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians. Effects on skeletal muscle. JAMA 1990;263:3029-34 «PMID: 2342214»PubMed
  10. Porter MM. Power training for older adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2006;31:87-94 «PMID: 16604125»PubMed
  11. Orr R, de Vos NJ, Singh NA ym. Power training improves balance in healthy older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006;61:78-85 «PMID: 16456197»PubMed
  12. Tanaka H, Seals DR. Invited Review: Dynamic exercise performance in Masters athletes: insight into the effects of primary human aging on physiological functional capacity. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2003;95:2152-62 «PMID: 14555676»PubMed
  13. Nelson ME, Rejeski WJ, Blair SN ym. Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39:1435-45 «PMID: 17762378»PubMed
  14. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Be Active, Healthy, and Happy! ODPHP Publication No. U0036 October 2008. «http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf»1
  15. Lonkkamurtuma (online). Käypä hoito -suositus. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Ortopediyhdistyksen asettama työryhmä. 10.06.2011 «http://www.kaypahoito.fi»2
  16. Pajala S. Iäkkäiden kaatumisten ehkäisy. THL. Opas 16:2012 «http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi-fe201205085108»3
  17. Fratiglioni L, Paillard-Borg S, Winblad B. An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Lancet Neurol 2004;3:343-53 «PMID: 15157849»PubMed
  18. Kivipelto M, Viitanen M. Vanhus ja muisti - Vanhuudenhöperyyttä vai orastavaa Alzheimeria? Duodecim 2006;122:1513-20 PubMed
  19. Colcombe S, Kramer AF. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic study. Psychol Sci 2003;14:125-30 «PMID: 12661673»PubMed
  20. Blazer DG, Yaffe K, Karlawish J. Cognitive aging: a report from the Institute of Medicine. JAMA 2015;313:2121-2 «PMID: 25875498»PubMed
  21. Barnes DE, Yaffe K. The projected effect of risk factor reduction on Alzheimer's disease prevalence. Lancet Neurol 2011;10:819-28 «PMID: 21775213»PubMed
  22. Yaffe K, Hoang TD, Byers AL ym. Lifestyle and health-related risk factors and risk of cognitive aging among older veterans. Alzheimers Dement 2014;10:S111-21 «PMID: 24924664»PubMed
  23. Petersen RC. Clinical practice. Mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med 2011;364:2227-34 «PMID: 21651394»PubMed
  24. Heyn P, Abreu BC, Ottenbacher KJ. The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia: a meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:1694-704 «PMID: 15468033»PubMed
  25. Brown BM, Peiffer JJ, Martins RN. Multiple effects of physical activity on molecular and cognitive signs of brain aging: can exercise slow neurodegeneration and delay Alzheimer's disease? Mol Psychiatry 2013;18:864-74 «PMID: 23164816»PubMed
  26. Angevaren M, Aufdemkampe G, Verhaar HJ ym. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;:CD005381 «PMID: 18425918»PubMed
  27. Cassilhas RC, Viana VA, Grassmann V ym. The impact of resistance exercise on the cognitive function of the elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39:1401-7 «PMID: 17762374»PubMed
  28. Liu-Ambrose T, Nagamatsu LS, Graf P ym. Resistance training and executive functions: a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:170-8 «PMID: 20101012»PubMed
  29. Komulainen P, Kivipelto M, Lakka TA ym. Exercise, fitness and cognition - a randomized controlled trial in older individuals: the DR's EXTRA study. Eur Geriatr Med 2010;1:266-72
  30. Lautenschlager NT, Almeida OP. Physical activity and cognition in old age. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2006;19:190-3 «PMID: 16612202»PubMed
  31. Rovio S, Kåreholt I, Helkala EL ym. Leisure-time physical activity at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurol 2005;4:705-11 «PMID: 16239176»PubMed
  32. Podewils LJ, Guallar E, Kuller LH ym. Physical activity, APOE genotype, and dementia risk: findings from the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study. Am J Epidemiol 2005;161:639-51 «PMID: 15781953»PubMed
  33. Larson EB, Wang L, Bowen JD ym. Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:73-81 «PMID: 16418406»PubMed
  34. Colcombe SJ, Erickson KI, Scalf PE ym. Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006;61:1166-70 «PMID: 17167157»PubMed
  35. Dishman RK, Berthoud HR, Booth FW ym. Neurobiology of exercise. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14:345-56 «PMID: 16648603»PubMed
  36. Kramer AF, Erickson KI, Colcombe SJ. Exercise, cognition, and the aging brain. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2006;101:1237-42 «PMID: 16778001»PubMed
  37. Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS ym. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011;108:3017-22 «PMID: 21282661»PubMed
  38. Ruscheweyh R, Willemer C, Krüger K ym. Physical activity and memory functions: an interventional study. Neurobiol Aging 2011;32:1304-19 «PMID: 19716631»PubMed
  39. Erickson KI, Leckie RL, Weinstein AM. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume. Neurobiol Aging 2014;35 Suppl 2:S20-8 «PMID: 24952993»PubMed
  40. Liu-Ambrose T, Nagamatsu LS, Voss MW ym. Resistance training and functional plasticity of the aging brain: a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Neurobiol Aging 2012;33:1690-8 «PMID: 21741129»PubMed
  41. Nagamatsu LS, Handy TC, Hsu CL ym. Resistance training promotes cognitive and functional brain plasticity in seniors with probable mild cognitive impairment. Arch Intern Med 2012;172:666-8 «PMID: 22529236»PubMed
  42. Yarrow JF, White LJ, McCoy SC ym. Training augments resistance exercise induced elevation of circulating brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Neurosci Lett 2010;479:161-5 «PMID: 20553806»PubMed
  43. Phillips C, Baktir MA, Srivatsan M ym. Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling. Front Cell Neurosci 2014;8:170 «PMID: 24999318»PubMed
  44. Ngandu T, Lehtisalo J, Solomon A ym. A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2015;385:2255-63 «PMID: 25771249»PubMed
  45. Pitkälä K, Savikko N, Poysti M ym. Efficacy of physical exercise intervention on mobility and physical functioning in older people with dementia: a systematic review. Exp Gerontol 2013;48:85-93 «PMID: 22960590»PubMed
  46. Rolland Y, Pillard F, Klapouszczak A ym. Exercise program for nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease: a 1-year randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:158-65 «PMID: 17302650»PubMed
Käypä hoito -suositukset ovat riippumattomia, tutkimusnäyttöön perustuvia kansallisia hoitosuosituksia. Lue lisää
KÄYPÄ HOITO -SUOSITUS Liikunta
LINKKIEN TYYPIT JA VÄRIKOODIT
Kirjallisuusviite
Kuva
Linkki toiselle sivustolle
Lisätietoa
Näytönastekatsaus
PDF-tiedosto
PubMed-abstrakti
Taulukko