Perifeerisen valtimotaudin riskitekijät ja sekundaaripreventio

Lisätietoa aiheesta
Jaakko Viljamaa


  1. Hirsch AT, Haskal ZJ, Hertzer NR ym. ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (lower extremity, renal, mesenteric, and abdominal aortic): a collaborative report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, Society of Interventional Radiology, and the ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease): endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Society for Vascular Nursing; TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus; and Vascular Disease Foundation. Circulation 2006;113:e463-654
  2. Viles-Gonzalez JF, Fuster V, Badimon JJ. Atherothrombosis: a widespread disease with unpredictable and life-threatening consequences. Eur Heart J 2004;25:1197-207
  3. Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Ohman EM ym. International prevalence, recognition, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with atherothrombosis. JAMA 2006;295:180-9
  4. Fowkes FG, Low LP, Tuta S ym. Ankle-brachial index and extent of atherothrombosis in 8891 patients with or at risk of vascular disease: results of the international AGATHA study. Eur Heart J 2006;27:1861-7
  5. Criqui MH, Langer RD, Fronek A ym. Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease. N Engl J Med 1992;326:381-6
  6. Leng GC, Lee AJ, Fowkes FG ym. Incidence, natural history and cardiovascular events in symptomatic and asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Int J Epidemiol 1996;25:1172-81
  7. Walker SR, Yusuf SW, Hopkinson BR. A 10-year follow-up of patients presenting with ischaemic rest pain of the lower limbs. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1998;15:478-82
  8. Bertele V, Roncaglioni MC, Pangrazzi J, Terzian E, Tognoni EG. Clinical outcome and its predictors in 1560 patients with critical leg ischaemia. Chronic Critical Leg Ischaemia Group. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1999;18:401-10
  9. Ouriel K. Peripheral arterial disease. Lancet 2001;358:1257-64
  10. Criqui MH, Denenberg JO. The generalized nature of atherosclerosis: how peripheral arterial disease may predict adverse events from coronary artery disease. Vasc Med 1998;3:241-5
  11. Hirsch AT, Criqui MH, Treat-Jacobson D ym. Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care. JAMA 2001;286:1317-24
  12. Blacher J, Cacoub P, Luizy F ym. Peripheral arterial disease versus other localizations of vascular disease: the ATTEST study. J Vasc Surg 2006;44:314-8
  13. Hiatt WR. Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease and claudication. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1608-21
  14. Regensteiner JG, Hiatt WR. Current medical therapies for patients with peripheral arterial disease: a critical review. Am J Med 2002;112:49-57
  15. Burns P, Gough S, Bradbury AW. Management of peripheral arterial disease in primary care. Br Med J 2003;326:584-8
  16. Stoyioglou A, Jaff MR. Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease: a comprehensive review. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2004;15:1197-207
  17. Bendermacher BL, Willigendael EM, Teijink JA, Prins MH. Medical management of peripheral arterial disease. J Thromb Haemost 2005;3:1628-37
  18. Hankey GJ, Norman PE, Eikelboom JW. Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease. JAMA 2006;295:547-53
  19. Schainfeld RM. Management of peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication. J Am Board Fam Pract 2001;14:443-50
  20. De Backer G, Ambrosioni E, Borch-Johnsen K ym. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Third Joint Task Force of European and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Eur Heart J 2003;24:1601-10
  21. Smith SC Jr, Allen J, Blair SN ym. AHA/ACC guidelines for secondary prevention for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2006 update: endorsed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:2130-9
  22. Norgren L, Hiatt WR, Dormandy JA ym. Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II). Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2007;33(Suppl 1):S1-75
  23. Price JF, Mowbray PI, Lee AJ, Rumley A, Lowe GD, Fowkes FG. Relationship between smoking and cardiovascular risk factors in the development of peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease: Edinburgh Artery Study. Eur Heart J 1999;20:344-53
  24. Criqui MH. Peripheral arterial disease - epidemiological aspects. Vasc Med 2001;6 (Suppl):3-7
  25. Leskinen Y, Salenius JP, Lehtimaki T, Huhtala H, Saha H. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and medial arterial calcification in patients with chronic renal failure: requirements for diagnostics. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;40:472-9
  26. Lamping DL, Constantinovici N, Roderick P ym. Clinical outcomes, quality of life, and costs in the North Thames Dialysis Study of elderly people on dialysis: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2000;356:1543-50
  27. Meijer WT, Hoes AW, Rutgers D, Bots ML, Hofman A, Grobbee DE. Peripheral arterial disease in the elderly: The Rotterdam Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:185-92
  28. Diehm C, Schuster A, Allenberg JR ym. High prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and co-morbidity in 6880 primary care patients: cross-sectional study. Atherosclerosis 2004;172:95-105
  29. Stoffers HE, Rinkens PE, Kester AD, Kaiser V, Knottnerus JA. The prevalence of asymptomatic and unrecognized peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Int J Epidemiol 1996;25:282-90
  30. Newman AB, Siscovick DS, Manolio TA ym. Ankle-arm index as a marker of atherosclerosis in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Cardiovascular Heart Study (CHS) Collaborative Research Group.Circulation 1993;88:837-45
  31. Selvin E, Erlinger TP. Prevalence of and risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000. Circulation 2004;110:738-43
  32. Meijer WT, Grobbee DE, Hunink MG, Hofman A, Hoes AW. Determinants of peripheral arterial disease in the elderly: The Rotterdam study. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:2934-8
  33. Hooi JD, Stoffers HE, Kester AD ym. Risk factors and cardiovascular diseases associated with asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease: The Limburg PAOD Study. Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease. Scand J Prim Health Care 1998;16:177-82
  34. Valentine RJ, Guerra R, Stephan P, Scoggins E, Clagett GP, Cohen J. Family history is a major determinant of subclinical peripheral arterial disease in young adults. J Vasc Surg 2004;39:351-6
  35. Criqui MH, Vargas V, Denenberg JO ym. Ethnicity and peripheral arterial disease: the San Diego Population Study. Circulation 2005;112:2703-7
  36. Kullo IJ, Bailey KR, Kardia SL, Mosley TH Jr, Boerwinkle E, Turner ST. Ethnic differences in peripheral arterial disease in the NHLBI Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. Vasc Med 2003;8:237-42
  37. van der Meer IM, Iglesias del Sol A, Hak AE, Bots ML, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Risk factors for progression of atherosclerosis measured at multiple sites in the arterial tree: The Rotterdam Study. Stroke 2003;34:2374-9
  38. Aboyans V, Criqui MH, Denenberg JO, Knoke JD, Ridker PM, Fronek A. Risk factors for progression of peripheral arterial disease in large and small vessels. Circulation 2006;113:2623-9
  39. Olijhoek JK, van der Graaf Y, Banga JD ym. The metabolic syndrome is associated with advanced vascular damage in patients with coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eur Heart J 2004;25:342-8
  40. Lahoz C, Vicente I, Laguna F ym. Metabolic syndrome and asymptomatic peripheral artery disease in subjects over 60 years of age. Diabetes Care 2006;29:148-50
  41. Rana JS, Jansen AC, Zwinderman AH ym. Metabolic syndrome and risk of coronary, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease in a large Dutch population with familial hypercholesterolemia. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1125-7
  42. Jansen AC, van Aalst-Cohen ES, Tanck MW ym. The contribution of classical risk factors to cardiovascular disease in familial hypercholesterolemia: data in 2400 patients. J Intern Med 2004;256:482-90
  43. Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr, Cleeman JI ym. Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association Conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 2004;109:433-8
  44. Ford ES. Risks for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes associated with the metabolic syndrome: a summary of the evidence. Diabetes Care 2005;28:1769-78
  45. Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. Br Med J 2002;325:1202-8
  46. Dudman NP. An alternative view of homocysteine. Lancet 1999;354:2072-4
  47. Kaul S, Zadeh AA, Shah PK. Homocysteine hypothesis for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease: not validated. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:914-23
  48. Guallar E, Silbergeld EK, Navas-Acien A ym. Confounding of the relation between homocysteine and peripheral arterial disease by lead, cadmium, and renal function. Am J Epidemiol 2006;163:700-8
  49. Hackam DG, Anand SS. Emerging risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease: a critical review of the evidence. JAMA 2003;290:932-40
  50. Ouriel K. Peripheral arterial disease. Lancet 2001;358:1257-64
  51. Vig S, Chitolie A, Sleight S ym. Prevalence and risk of thrombophilia defects in vascular patients. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2004;28:124-31
Käypä hoito -suositukset ovat riippumattomia, tutkimusnäyttöön perustuvia kansallisia hoitosuosituksia. Lue lisää
Linkki toiselle sivustolle