Tulosta

Adverse effects of glaucoma medication (tables 1 and 2)

Lisätietoa aiheesta
2.7.2014
Osmo Kari
Table 1. Adverse effects and allergies to common glaucoma treatment
Drug Adverse effect and allergy
  1. Common
  2. Prevalence
Rare
  1. Study
  2. (Ref.)
Quality
Parasympatomimetics
  1. Local: Contact allergy
  2. Miosis: accommodation spasm, visual disturbances in cataract and visual field, risk of retinal ablation
  3. Systemic: psychosis
  1. 1.2–8 % «Osmo Kari. The unpublished results from test series to ophthalmic drugs in 1994-2004 in the Skin and Allergy Hospital of the Helsinki University Central Hospital»45
  2. ++
  1. Good
  2. Fair
Beta blockers
  1. Systemic: cardiovascular, uro-genital, pulmonary: asthma
  2. Psychic: depression, insomnia
  3. Local: stinging, dry eye, contact allergy
  1. ++
  2. +
  3. +
  4. allergic: 2–4.8 % «Osmo Kari. The unpublished results from test series to ophthalmic drugs in 1994-2004 in the Skin and Allergy Hospital of the Helsinki University Central Hospital»45
+
  1. «Hugues FC, Le Jeunne C, Munera Y ym. [Comparison of the effects of carteolol and metipranolol eyedrops on the ventilatory and cardiovascular functions in asthmatics]. J Fr Ophtalmol 1987;10:485-90 »1, «Waldock A, Snape J, Graham CM. Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. Br J Ophthalmol 2000;84:710-3 »2, «Novack GD, Kelley EP, Lue JC. A multicenter evaluation of levobunolol (Vistagan) in Germany. Ophthalmologica 1988;197:90-6 »3
  2. «Lynch MG, Whitson JT, Brown RH ym. Topical beta-blocker therapy and central nervous system side effects. A preliminary study comparing betaxolol and timolol. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106:908-11 »4, «Holdiness MR. Contact dermatitis to topical drugs for glaucoma. Am J Contact Dermat 2001;12:217-9 »10
Good
  1. Systemic carboanhydrase inhibitors
  2. Topical CAI
  1. Systemic: electrolyte balance, urea metabolism, blood sugar, and on neurologic system.
  2. Serious adverse effects include thrombocytopenia and fatal anaphylactic reactions and increased risk of death
  3. Local: allergic reactions, stinging and burning and bitter taste are common
  1. ++
  2. allergic: 2–3.7% «Osmo Kari. The unpublished results from test series to ophthalmic drugs in 1994-2004 in the Skin and Allergy Hospital of the Helsinki University Central Hospital»45
  3. ++ 1.8–16.4% «Silver LH. Clinical efficacy and safety of brinzolamide (Azopt), a new topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide Primary Therapy Study »19
+
  1. «Schuman JS. Clinical experience with brimonidine 0.2% and timolol 0.5% in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Surv Ophthalmol 1996;41 Suppl 1:S27-37 »5, «Silver LH. Clinical efficacy and safety of brinzolamide (Azopt), a new topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide Primary Therapy Study »19, «Aalto-Korte K. Contact allergy to dorzolamide eyedrops. Contact Dermatitis 1998;39:206 »22
Good
Adrenergics
  1. Local adverse effects are common; allergic reactions, contact dermatoconjunctivitis and follicular conjunctivitis in ca. 50% of users
  2. Systemic: dipivalyl epinephrine and adrenaline may have cardiovascular side effects
  3. Psychic: the simulatenous use with drugs which have deprivation effect on CNS is not recommended (alcohol, sedative, antideppressiva, MAO inhibitors, opiates)
  1. +++, 50%
  2. allergic:
  3. 2–3.3% «Osmo Kari. The unpublished results from test series to ophthalmic drugs in 1994-2004 in the Skin and Allergy Hospital of the Helsinki University Central Hospital»45
  4. +
+
  1. «Holdiness MR. Contact dermatitis to topical drugs for glaucoma. Am J Contact Dermat 2001;12:217-9 »10, «Silvestre JF, Carnero L, Ramón R ym. Allergic contact dermatitis from apraclonidine in eyedrops. Contact Dermatitis 2001;45:251 »11
  2. «Blondeau P, Rousseau JA. Allergic reactions to brimonidine in patients treated for glaucoma. Can J Ophthalmol 2002;37:21-6 »12, «Butler P, Mannschreck M, Lin S ym. Clinical experience with the long-term use of 1% apraclonidine. Incidence of allergic reactions. Arch Ophthalmol 1995;113:293-6 »13
  1. Good
  2. Fair
Prostaglandin (analoques) derivatives
  1. Systemic side effects are rare; headache (incidence 0.2%), cardiovascular and respiratory side effects
  2. Local reactions are common; contact allergy, hypertrichosis, iris pigmentation (12–18%), conjunctival hyperemia (incidence 2%), darkening of the eye lids, conjunctival eosinophilia also in non-atopic patients, cystic macular edema, herpes, iridocyclitis, corneal thinning
  1. 0.2%
  2. ++
  3. 12–18%
  4. 2%
  5. allergic: 1.2% «Osmo Kari. The unpublished results from test series to ophthalmic drugs in 1994-2004 in the Skin and Allergy Hospital of the Helsinki University Central Hospital»45
+
  1. «Arcieri ES, Santana A, Rocha FN ym. Blood-aqueous barrier changes after the use of prostaglandin analogues in patients with pseudophakia and aphakia: a 6-month randomized trial. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;1»16, «Jerstad KM, Warshaw E. Allergic contact dermatitis to latanoprost. Am J Contact Dermat 2002;13:39-41 »17
  2. «Wand M, Gilbert CM, Liesegang TJ. Latanoprost and herpes simplex keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1999;127:602-4 »28, «Schlote T. [Side-effects and risk profile of latanoprost 0.005% (Xalatan)]. Ophthalmologe 2002;99:724-9 »29, «Zimmerman TJ, Stewart WC, Latanoprost Axis Study Group. Intraocular pressure, safety, and quality of life in glaucoma patients switching to latanoprost from monotherapy treatments. J Ocul Pharmacol Th»30
  1. Fair
  2. Good
  1. Bentsalkon chloride (BAC)
  2. Thimerosal
  3. Parabens
  1. Local: BAC causes corneal and conjunctival changes compared to preparations without BAC or with low concentrations of BAC
  2. Contact allergies to preservatives
  1. + 3.4% «Hätinen A, Teräsvirta M, Fräki JE. Contact allergy to components in topical ophthalmologic preparations. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1985;63:424-6 »25
  2. 2–5.5% «Osmo Kari. The unpublished results from test series to ophthalmic drugs in 1994-2004 in the Skin and Allergy Hospital of the Helsinki University Central Hospital»45
  3. +
+
  1. «Tosti A, Tosti G. Thimerosal: a hidden allergen in ophthalmology. Contact Dermatitis 1988;18:268-73 »24, «Hätinen A, Teräsvirta M, Fräki JE. Contact allergy to components in topical ophthalmologic preparations. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1985;63:424-6 »25
Good
  1. Glaucoma drugs
  2. (beta blockers)
Pseudopemphigoid + «Novack GD, O'Donnell MJ, Molloy DW. New glaucoma medications in the geriatric population: efficacy and safety. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:956-62 »31 Fair
  1. Surgical treatment:
  2. Trabeculectomia, mitomycin,iridectomia
Phleb leakage, phleb cicatrisation, endophthalmitis, cornea based refractive errors + +
  1. «Al-Torbak AA, Al-Shahwan S, Al-Jadaan I ym. Endophthalmitis associated with the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:454-8 »35, «Traverso CE, De Feo F, Messas-Kaplan A ym. Long term effect on IOP of a stainless steel glaucoma drainage implant (Ex-PRESS) in combined surgery with phacoemulsification. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:425-9»36, «Halkiadakis I, Lim P, Moroi SE. Surgical results of bleb revision with scleral patch graft for late-onset bleb complications. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2005;36:14-23 »38, «Busbee BG, Recchia FM, Kaiser R ym. Bleb-associated endophthalmitis: clinical characteristics and visual outcomes. Ophthalmology 2004;111:1495-503; discussion 1503 »39, «Egrilmez S, Ates H, Nalcaci S ym. Surgically induced corneal refractive change following glaucoma surgery: nonpenetrating trabecular surgeries versus trabeculectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30:12»41
Fair
  1. Laser treatment:
  2. ALT, YAG
Secondary glaucoma from hyphema, spontaneous iris prolapse after Nd:YAG goniopuncture +
  1. «Kumar N, Feyi-Waboso A. Intractable secondary glaucoma from hyphema following YAG iridotomy. Can J Ophthalmol 2005;40:85-6 »33, «Vuori ML. Complications of Neodymium:YAG laser goniopuncture after deep sclerectomy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2003;81:573-6 »43
Fair
Taulukko 2. Characteristics of Common Topical Glaucoma Medications
Topical medications Ocular side effects Systemic side effects Contraindications Drug interactions Clinical notes
Miotics
Pilocarpin Burning; blurred vision; difficulty with night vision; miosis or accommodative spasm; lens opacity (rare); retinal detachment (rare); precipitation of closed-angle glaucoma (rare) Sweating; salivation; urinary frequency; nausea; diarrhea; bronchospasm; biliary colic; mental status change; variable cardiovascular response Hypersensitivity; poorly controlled asthma; acute iritis May precipitate if administered with sodium sulfacetamide Blurred vision increased with gel; miosis decreased with Ocusert Pilo; retinal detachment increased in patients with myopia; use with caution in patients with cataracts, hyper-thyroidism, parkinsonism or urinary tract obstruction
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Dorzolamide Burning; punctate keratitis; ocular allergies; increased ocular side effects relative to timolol Bitter taste; headache; nausea; asthenia; kidney stones (rare) Hypersensitivity to sulfonamides; eye injury or surgery Not recommended for use with systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; may accentuate side effects of salicylate therapy; may promote excretion of acidic drugs and inhibit renal excretion of basic drugs Contact lenses must be removed; may be reinserted 15 minutes after installation of medication; not studied in patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction
Brinzolamide Possibly decreased ocular side effects compared with dorzolamide; blepharitis; foreign-body sensation Bitter taste; headache; rhinitis sensation Hypersensitivity to sulfonamides Same as dorzolamide Same as dorzolamide
Sympathomimetics
Epinephrine-like
Dipivefrin Brimonidineapraclonidine Burning; follicular conjunctivitis; macular edema in patients who are aphakic Increased blood pressure; arrhythmias; tremor Narrow-angle glaucoma Use cautiously with cardiovascular or stimulant medications Epinephrine prodrug; decreased ocular and systemic side effects relative to epinephrine; use cautiously in patients with cardiovascular disease
«Lewis PR, Phillips TG, Sassani JW. Topical therapies for glaucoma: what family physicians need to know. Am Fam Physician 1999;59:1871-9, 1882 »46

Kirjallisuutta

  1. Hugues FC, Le Jeunne C, Munera Y ym. [Comparison of the effects of carteolol and metipranolol eyedrops on the ventilatory and cardiovascular functions in asthmatics]. J Fr Ophtalmol 1987;10:485-90 «PMID: 2892874»PubMed
  2. Waldock A, Snape J, Graham CM. Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. Br J Ophthalmol 2000;84:710-3 «PMID: 10873979»PubMed
  3. Novack GD, Kelley EP, Lue JC. A multicenter evaluation of levobunolol (Vistagan) in Germany. Ophthalmologica 1988;197:90-6 «PMID: 3054684»PubMed
  4. Lynch MG, Whitson JT, Brown RH ym. Topical beta-blocker therapy and central nervous system side effects. A preliminary study comparing betaxolol and timolol. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106:908-11 «PMID: 2898932»PubMed
  5. Schuman JS. Clinical experience with brimonidine 0.2% and timolol 0.5% in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Surv Ophthalmol 1996;41 Suppl 1:S27-37 «PMID: 8970247»PubMed
  6. Kodjikian L, Durand B, Burillon C ym. Acetazolamide-induced thrombocytopenia. Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122:1543-4 «PMID: 15477470»PubMed
  7. Viestenz A, Martus P, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U ym. [Impact of prostaglandin-F(2alpha)-analogues and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors on central corneal thickness -- a cross-sectional study on 403 eyes]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2004;221:753-6 «PMID: 15459842»PubMed
  8. Gerhards LJ, van Arnhem AC, Holman ND ym. [Fatal anaphylactic reaction after oral acetazolamide (diamox) for glaucoma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2000;144:1228-30 «PMID: 10897303»PubMed
  9. Davis AR, Diggory P, Seward HC. Prevalence of chronic hypokalaemia amongst elderly patients using acetozolamide and diuretics. Eye (Lond) 1995;9 ( Pt 3):381-2 «PMID: 7556757»PubMed
  10. Holdiness MR. Contact dermatitis to topical drugs for glaucoma. Am J Contact Dermat 2001;12:217-9 «PMID: 11753897»PubMed
  11. Silvestre JF, Carnero L, Ramón R ym. Allergic contact dermatitis from apraclonidine in eyedrops. Contact Dermatitis 2001;45:251 «PMID: 11683848»PubMed
  12. Blondeau P, Rousseau JA. Allergic reactions to brimonidine in patients treated for glaucoma. Can J Ophthalmol 2002;37:21-6 «PMID: 11865954»PubMed
  13. Butler P, Mannschreck M, Lin S ym. Clinical experience with the long-term use of 1% apraclonidine. Incidence of allergic reactions. Arch Ophthalmol 1995;113:293-6 «PMID: 7887842»PubMed
  14. Costagliola C, Prete AD, Incorvaia C ym. Ocular surface changes induced by topical application of latanoprost and timolol: a short-term study in glaucomatous patients with and without allergic conjunctivitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2001;239:809-14 «PMID: 11789860»PubMed
  15. Noecker RJ, Herrygers LA, Anwaruddin R. Corneal and conjunctival changes caused by commonly used glaucoma medications. Cornea 2004;23:490-6 «PMID: 15220734»PubMed
  16. Arcieri ES, Santana A, Rocha FN ym. Blood-aqueous barrier changes after the use of prostaglandin analogues in patients with pseudophakia and aphakia: a 6-month randomized trial. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;123:186-92 «PMID: 15710814»PubMed
  17. Jerstad KM, Warshaw E. Allergic contact dermatitis to latanoprost. Am J Contact Dermat 2002;13:39-41 «PMID: 11887105»PubMed
  18. Cusano F, Luciano S, Capozzi M ym. Contact dermatitis from pilocarpine. Contact Dermatitis 1993;29:99 «PMID: 8365189»PubMed
  19. Silver LH. Clinical efficacy and safety of brinzolamide (Azopt), a new topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide Primary Therapy Study Group. Am J Ophthalmol 1998;126:400-8 «PMID: 9744373»PubMed
  20. Mills KB, Jacobs NA. A single-blind randomised trial comparing adrenaline 1.0% with dipivalyl epinephrine (propine) 0.1% in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Br J Ophthalmol 1988;72:465-8 «PMID: 3291940»PubMed
  21. Edgar DF, Crabb DP, Rudnicka AR ym. Effects of dipivefrin and pilocarpine on pupil diameter, automated perimetry and LogMAR acuity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1999;237:117-24 «PMID: 9987628»PubMed
  22. Aalto-Korte K. Contact allergy to dorzolamide eyedrops. Contact Dermatitis 1998;39:206 «PMID: 9817238»PubMed
  23. Vilaplana J, Romaguera C. Contact dermatitis from parabens used as preservatives in eyedrops. Contact Dermatitis 2000;43:248 «PMID: 11011947»PubMed
  24. Tosti A, Tosti G. Thimerosal: a hidden allergen in ophthalmology. Contact Dermatitis 1988;18:268-73 «PMID: 3416589»PubMed
  25. Hätinen A, Teräsvirta M, Fräki JE. Contact allergy to components in topical ophthalmologic preparations. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1985;63:424-6 «PMID: 4050363»PubMed
  26. de Jong C, Stolwijk T, Kuppens E ym. Topical timolol with and without benzalkonium chloride: epithelial permeability and autofluorescence of the cornea in glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1994;232:221-4 «PMID: 8034210»PubMed
  27. Thorne JE, Anhalt GJ, Jabs DA. Mucous membrane pemphigoid and pseudopemphigoid. Ophthalmology 2004;111:45-52 «PMID: 14711713»PubMed
  28. Wand M, Gilbert CM, Liesegang TJ. Latanoprost and herpes simplex keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1999;127:602-4 «PMID: 10334356»PubMed
  29. Schlote T. [Side-effects and risk profile of latanoprost 0.005% (Xalatan)]. Ophthalmologe 2002;99:724-9 «PMID: 12219263»PubMed
  30. Zimmerman TJ, Stewart WC, Latanoprost Axis Study Group. Intraocular pressure, safety, and quality of life in glaucoma patients switching to latanoprost from monotherapy treatments. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2003;19:405-15 «PMID: 14583133»PubMed
  31. Novack GD, O'Donnell MJ, Molloy DW. New glaucoma medications in the geriatric population: efficacy and safety. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:956-62 «PMID: 12028187»PubMed
  32. Watson JC, Kadri OA, Wilcox MJ. Effects of mitomycin C on glaucoma filtration capsules. Biomed Sci Instrum 2005;41:394-9 «PMID: 15850138»PubMed
  33. Kumar N, Feyi-Waboso A. Intractable secondary glaucoma from hyphema following YAG iridotomy. Can J Ophthalmol 2005;40:85-6 «PMID: 15825538»PubMed
  34. Kozobolis VP, Detorakis ET, Maskaleris G ym. Corneal sensitivity changes following the instillation of latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost eyedrops. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;139:742-3 «PMID: 15808188»PubMed
  35. Al-Torbak AA, Al-Shahwan S, Al-Jadaan I ym. Endophthalmitis associated with the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:454-8 «PMID: 15774923»PubMed
  36. Traverso CE, De Feo F, Messas-Kaplan A ym. Long term effect on IOP of a stainless steel glaucoma drainage implant (Ex-PRESS) in combined surgery with phacoemulsification. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:425-9 «PMID: 15774918»PubMed
  37. Sirois FJ. Pilocarpine psychosis. Psychosomatics 2005;46:88
  38. Halkiadakis I, Lim P, Moroi SE. Surgical results of bleb revision with scleral patch graft for late-onset bleb complications. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2005;36:14-23 «PMID: 15688967»PubMed
  39. Busbee BG, Recchia FM, Kaiser R ym. Bleb-associated endophthalmitis: clinical characteristics and visual outcomes. Ophthalmology 2004;111:1495-503; discussion 1503 «PMID: 15288977»PubMed
  40. Osborne SA, Montgomery DM, Morris D ym. Alphagan allergy may increase the propensity for multiple eye-drop allergy. Eye (Lond) 2005;19:129-37 «PMID: 15254495»PubMed
  41. Egrilmez S, Ates H, Nalcaci S ym. Surgically induced corneal refractive change following glaucoma surgery: nonpenetrating trabecular surgeries versus trabeculectomy. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30:1232-9 «PMID: 15177597»PubMed
  42. Packer M, Fine IH, Hoffman RS. Bilateral nongranulomatous anterior uveitis associated with bimatoprost. J Cataract Refract Surg 2003;29:2242-3 «PMID: 14670442»PubMed
  43. Vuori ML. Complications of Neodymium:YAG laser goniopuncture after deep sclerectomy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2003;81:573-6 «PMID: 14641256»PubMed
  44. Holz HA, Lim MC. Glaucoma lasers: a review of the newer techniques. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2005;16:89-93 «PMID: 15744138»PubMed
  45. Osmo Kari. The unpublished results from test series to ophthalmic drugs in 1994-2004 in the Skin and Allergy Hospital of the Helsinki University Central Hospital
  46. Lewis PR, Phillips TG, Sassani JW. Topical therapies for glaucoma: what family physicians need to know. Am Fam Physician 1999;59:1871-9, 1882 «PMID: 10208706»PubMed
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